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UN year 2004 was declared the International Year of Rice

History of Rice Cultivation

     Rice is one of the ancient crops the human beings cultivate. The tens of thousands of years of its cultivation resulted in breeding of multiple varieties of rice and methods of its growth. There are different technologies of rice cultivation in the world (depending on social level): from the most archaic to the most intensive ones brought by the "green revolution". At the modern stage of world agricultural production rice remains the most heavy-yield crop at the planet. Besides that, cultivation of rice is linked with agrarian and environmental conditions which can be easily regulated by biologic factors. Due to this fact, rice, of all crops, enjoys the highest prospects of increase of its yield. These facts explain increased interest to the science on rice and rice cultivation.

     The earliest archeological evidence of rice cultivation was traced in Thailand at Korat plateau. Radiochemical and thermal luminescent analysis allowed dating these findings by 5370 (+/- 320 years) year BC. At the beginning of the fourth millennium BC, rice cultivation represented a powerful trend in Indo-China region. Then it was exported from Indo-China to South-Eastern Asia and after that came to China, Korea and Japan. India is fairly considered to be one of the most ancient rice cultivation centers. First archeological traces of rice cultivation in this country are dated by the year of 2000 BC. Indian rice came to Western and Central Asia.

     Rice appeared in Europe only after Alexander the Great crusades. Starting from 8-9 century AD rice was confidently distributed all over the European continent – and at fist in Spain. Spaniard troops of the Emperor Karl the Fifth brought it to the central regions of Italy (15-16th centuries). At the same period rice cultivation in France emerged, however, it has gained industrial significance only in the 40s of the last century. First rice fields in Russian empire were sown according to the order given by the Emperor Peter the Great after his Persian Crusade.

     The CIS countries, including Ukraine, started cultivating rice only after 1917. In 1926 some Koreans brought heavy-yield Japanese varieties of rice to Ukraine. Those times rice was cultivated at primitive rice systems located in the floods of Yuzhny Bug, Dniester, Ingulets and Dnepr rivers. However, the lack of drainage network and farming land rotation system resulted in soil salination, mire formation and weeds pollution of these land lots. Ultimately such situation led to drop of yield to 9-10 metric quintals per one hectare. The rice cultivation in Ukraine was never restored before 1960.

     Revival of rice cultivation started in 1961 due to launch of Krasnoznamenskaya, North Crimean and Ingulets irrigation systems into operation. In 1972 the total square area of rice ecosystems in Ukraine reached 62 100 hectares and annually sown area amounted to 37 900 – 38 300 hectares.

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EPIC INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP on Modern Technologies of Rice Growing, Global Food and Environmental Safety
«Новітні наукові розробки в галузі рисівництва та краплинного зрошення»
РІЧНИЙ ПЛАН ЗАКУПІВЕЛЬ на 2015 рік Інституту рису Національної академії аграрних наук України
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